Jihad- Traditionally defined as a war or struggle against non believers in the name of Islam, this term has come to mean the terroristic tendancies of many groups who use "jihad" as the excuse to perfom malicious and deadly acts of violence against those they deem as non believers.
White Revolution- During the early 1960's, Iran's ruler undertook a series of reforms that were meant to redestribute much land to peasants, and undermine the tumoltuous antiregime movements of the time. Overall, this set of reforms was aimed at gaining the support of the lower class in the hopes that they would settle the growing hostility of the middle class.
Persian Empire- The Empire that Iran was dominated by during the beginning of the Iron Age with an influx of Iranian people.
Mullah- A muslim man educated in Islamic theology and sacred law. The word comes from the Arabic word meaning master and guardian.
-white revolution: revolution in name only- attempt to modernize the country & increase shah's power; gave peasants land that belonged to clerics & reduced clerical impact on daily life, women's rights extended & training & equipment for military was upgraded
-Jihad: among Muslims- war struggle against unbelievers; spiritual struggle within oneself against sin
Constitutional Revolution (1905-1911): was the first attempt to bring democracy to Iran. On January 12, 1906, a protest convinced the Shah to dismiss absolute rule causing demonstrations. The Iranian parliament, the Majlis, accepted the 1906 Constitution and divisions by Russia and Britain created an ungovernable nation.
Imam: a Shiite uprising among loyalists to Mogtada al-Sadr began over the Imam Ali Mosque. A small elite force has remained active in its calls for American withdrawal.
Death of Muhammad - Muhammad, universally considered as the creator of Islam, directly resulted in a split within the religion upon his death. The main issue came about who are the true heirs (creating Sunni and Shiite muslims).
Qur'an - Simply put, the Qur'an is the central text of Islam. The messages within it resulted from the angel Gabriel verbally revealing them to Muhammad. Most of it revolves around the concepts of existence of god and the resurrection.
Shariah: the code of law from the Koran and from the teachings of muhammed.
creation of majis: a place of sitting or council for special interest groups
Hajj: A pilgrimage taken every year by those who follow Islamic culture to the holy city of Mecca.
Election of 1979: Khomeini won the support of the Iranian people and helped to establish his revolutions after the election to create an Iranian republic
Election of prez Khatami: moderate who fought against censorship a, and for women and minority rights during his election campaign. He won by a landslide (2/3rds of vote) agai st a more conservative opponent.
Hajj: one of the five pillars of Islam. It requires every Muslim (that is physically and financially able) to take a pilgrimage to Mecca. This spiritual quest represents submission to god and purification of the heart.
Sunni: majority Muslim sect, usually seen as more moderate than the Shiites. Today, Iran/Iraq are dominated by the Shiites. As an effect of the death of Muhammad, Sunnis believed that prominent members should elect a leader.
Death of Khomeini: Three and a half million attended his funeral. They had to abort the first funeral after the crowd nearly destroyed his coffin as people desperately wanted his death shroud. At his second funeral, there was a steel casket and tighter security. His successor was Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri.
The Constitutional Revolution of 1905 -1915
This was the first attempt to bring democracy to Iran. For hundreds of years, the Qajar Dynasty dominated political and social life in Iran, and beginning in 1905, citizens started protesting against its rule. Revolutionaries fought for economic reform and a re-organization of the political system, and on January 12th 1906, a giant protest led to the formation of Iran's first equivalent of a parliamentary system.
Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf
This is one of the holies places for the Shia because it holds the tomb of Ali (the spiritual founder of the Shiites). It has also been a source of conflict among many leaders.
Mullah- A muslim man educated in Islamic law and theology
Persian Empire- Empire created in 6th Century BCE centered in Iran.
Shariah Law--The moral and religious code of Islam that also deals with such secular matters as crime and economics, along with such personal matters as hygiene and diet.
Creation of the Majlis--The Majlis is Iran's national legislature. It was crated in 1906 by the Iranian Constitution, and it is the lower house.
Mullah- Educated muslim trained in religious law and doctrine usually holding an official post.
Persian Empire- An empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
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Unit 3: Russia/China